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Rhodotypos scandens

Biological Category 
Plants
Species Type 
Shrub or woody bush
NY Invasiveness Rank 
Moderate
LHPrism Status 
Tier 3 - Established
Key Characteristics 
Fruit
Clusters of 4 black berry-like fruits (drupes) at the tips of branches
Flower
Large 4-petalled white flowers at the tips of branches in early spring
Stem
Opposite branching, deciduous shrub

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Description 
  • Jetbead is a member of the Rose family (Rosaceae).
  • Jetbead sports a beautiful spring-blooming, white, four-petaled flower. The leggy, open-branching shrub grows 5-7 feet tall and is most conspicuous during its spring bloom, as the species has little to no fall color and its fruits are small, often sparse and black. (4)

Leaves
Leaves are simple, oppositely arranged, doubly toothed on the margins and conspicuously ribbed. The color of the leaves is helpful in identifying the species as they stay bright green into the fall season. (5)

Flowers
Flowers are arranged in terminal clusters and are white, four petaled, spring blooming, and approximately 1.5 inches in diameter. (6)

Fruit/Seed
Fruit matures in early to mid-fall in the Hudson Valley, with clusters of four round, bead-like, highly glossy drupes approximately ¼ of an inch in diameter gradually turning jet black.  Immature fruits appear mid-summer and are a dark, reddish orange. (6)

Introduction History 
Introduced in 1866 from its native range in China, Japan, and Korea, jetbead was— and still is— a prized ornamental specimen. (3) The species is now extant in 17 states. (2)
Ecology and Habitat 
Jetbead prefers evenly moist, well-drained soils in sunny conditions but is tolerant of a variety of soils and will grow in dense shade. It is commonly found close to intentional plantings but can travel long distances if dispersed by birds. In the Hudson Valley, the species can be found on roadsides, forest edges and understory. (1)
Reproduction and Phenology 
Little information is available on the reproductive potential of jetbead, however, high seed viability has been reported. Studies are needed to determine if the species requires disturbance to establish in new sites. (9) Vectors include birds, small mammals and horticultural trade. (8)
Impacts of this species 

A multi-stemmed deciduous shrub, jetbead is shade tolerant and capable of invading forested areas, quickly displacing the native shrub layer.  These dense, homogenous stands can inhibit germination and establishment of other species in both the herbaceous and canopy layers. (1)

Management Methods 

Biological Control
No biological control option is currently available.

Manual or Mechanical Control
Pulling / Digging Up: Hand pulling or digging young plants is effective, if time consuming. (1)

Mowing: Cutting at leaf out may decrease this species’ capacity for vegetative growth and spread, however, this management strategy is more efficient if undertaken in conjunction with foliar spraying when new vegetation begins to grow back. Utmost care must be taken to complete any mowing, weed whacking or cutting before the formation of fruit so as not to spread any viable seeds. (1)

Girdling: Not applicable

Prescribed Fire: No information available

Prescribed Grazing: No information available

Soil Tilling: No information available

Mulching: No information available

Solarization: Not applicable

Hot Foam Spray: No information available

Chemical Control
The pesticide application rates and usage herein are recommendations based on research and interviews with land managers.  When considering the use of pesticides, it is your responsibility to fully understand the laws, regulations and best practices required to apply pesticides in a responsible manner.  At times, the pest you seek to treat may not be on a pesticide label, requiring a 2ee exemption from NYSDEC.  Always thoroughly read the label of any pesticide and consult the NYSDEC or a licensed pesticide applicator with questions.

Foliar Spray: A 1% solution of glyphosate is effective against this species. Repeat application may be necessary in several weeks. Always read and follow all instructions on the herbicide label. (5)

Cut Stump: Cut stump herbicide application is an effective way of managing this species. Shrubs should be cut in the fall, prior to fruit set. Apply a 20% solution of glyphosate to the stump to inhibit re-sprouting.

Basal Bark: 25% solution of triclopyr applied July through September

Hack-And-Squirt

Stem Injection: Not applicable

Pre-Emergent Spray: No information available

Summary of Best Managment Practices 

General management overview and recommendation
Jetbead can be managed quickly and effectively by consistent, careful hand pulling if populations are discovered early. For large populations, repeated cutting and foliar spray of systemic herbicide such as glyphosate is an effective management option, as are cut stump treatments. (8)

Post treatment monitoring
Depending on the management method employed, controlled populations should be revisited throughout the growing season to monitor for re-sprouting, especially if mechanical methods such as cutting or pulling are used without herbicide application. 

Disposal Methods
Waste material can be chipped, burned or composted so long as management was completed prior to fruit set. Any fruit must be bagged and disposed of, and roots thoroughly dried.